Modified from an article originally published @Oracle.com on Monday, March 20, 2017 as :
CLOUD ARCHITECTURE AND IMPLICATIONS
By: Todd Jobson | Sr. Principal Enterprise Architect; MBA
If you’re wondering WHAT “Conditions” led us to Cloud Computing ? .. this brief synopsis is targeted to bring you up to speed rapidly on the underlying themes and industry momentum (in a nutshell).
As you can see from the IDC report and chart below, the 2000’s paradigm shift was a rush to cut costs in a down global economy, where Capital IT Expenses (CAPEX) were the first to go. Demand for expensive, high-performance HW (with 99.999% available RAS) became a luxury, and the new phrase “Good Enough” became the gauge that so many came to use (especially given that the majority of systems in place at the time where underutilized without virtualization, if not sitting idle as HA/Fail-over systems).
*For a more thorough examination of “enabling technology”, see my Cloud Architecture 101 article.
The missing piece within these “commodity”, (Custom-Integrated so called “best of breed” solutions) was robust unified full-stack Lifecycle Management/ Orchestration of App SW, OS, System Provisioning, & Virtualization, .. where VMware became the dominant player (at an ever growing, though initially hidden cost).
The graph below clearly depicts the shift to fewer physical servers AND greater numbers of VM’s (Logical servers).
The irony is thatwhat was initially viewed as a low-cost “panacea”.. (when few VM’s and x86/Linux systems need to be managed),quickly becomes a System/VM Management & Maintenance challengethat added more significant Linux, & VMware licensing costs (initially thought to be FREE & reduce cost).
These hidden Support Costs for theLinux OS & VM licensing, coupled with the time & effort to maintain these growing islands of workloads running on several-fold 1-2 socket x86 Servers (incurring much more downtime to configure/patch 2x, 4x, 10x the number of systems and resulting VM’s), were together the catalysts that resulted in the realities of the chart below. The task became so great, that VMware’s dominance and traction grew even further, noting it’s advanced capabilities to fill the SPOG void that existed.
For most Virtualized x86 (eg. VMware) deployments, over-provisioning is needed to accommodate for overhead (VM scheduling, emulation/translation ..) & inefficiencies (~12%+ per VM is not uncommon).
Without Vertical Scalability (> 2 CPU’s) as a cost-effective option for larger workloads, an additional penalty for Horizontal Scalability GROWS as greater network latencies in distributed system incur more network hops and inter-system traversing of TCP/IP stacks and protocol hand-shaking (several fold vs. all happening previously within a single system).
For many of these reasons, Converged Infrastructure & Engineered Systems began to gain some traction to reduce these costs & complexities.
However, granted that most of these commodity Converged x86/Linux/Virtualized IaaS/SDN deployments have continued to grow.. and grow, the cycle continues .. further fueling a justification to explore alternatives to On-Premise Infrastructure.. aka Hybrid or Public Cloud deployments & services.
This section is an excerpt from the article : Cloud Architecture 101: The Road to Cloud Services (IaaS/PaaS/SaaS) & Deployment Models (Private, Hybrid, Public)
Before your organization boils the ocean and does detailed Discovery & Requirements Analysis, the 4 Key areas in the chart below highlight the Key Questions that you need to first explore more thoroughly in order to determine cloud “viability”, let alone select the appropriate Cloud Service (IaaS, PaaS, SaaS) & Deployment Models (Private, Hybrid, Public) :
On top of the items noted above, having a greater density of an organization’s SW running on less reliable (lower RAS/ less redundant) HW, lends itself to other significant business issues (having all your eggs in fewer baskets) :
TOGETHER = Customer / Business RISK, Overhead, Complexity, and COST
Collectively, for all of the reasons above (+ CAPEX reductions to reduce facilities, cut staffing, etc), most organizations are today exploring the MANY private, plublic & Hybrid Cloud Deployment & Service Offerings (AWS, Azure, Oracle OCI, Google, ..).
The future will most-likely end up primarily utilizing Public Cloud deployment models (as the capabilities begin to match what is available On-Premises).
However, in the interim we should expect to see many Mission Critical, Highly Secure, or Extremely High performance workloads to either stay On-Premises, or more-than-likely extend to Hybrid Deployment models (driven by the ability to meet compliance/regulatory/SLA/SLC requirements), as the current trends depict.
A sampling of these trends are reflected in the charts below :
** See my other blogs for a more thorough examination of Cloud Architecture and Solution Offerings **.
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All content and comments made are that of Todd A. Jobson, Sr., TechThought.org, and not of current nor past employers.